Selasa, 11 Mei 2010


2.1 Religion
On Bali, Hinduism has developed along lines all its own. In fact, the way in which the Balinese practice their frontier Hinduism is still their greatest art. Hinduism is at least 3,000 years old and dates from the creation of the Vedas, compilations of prayers, hymns, and other religious writings. Hinduism doesn't have a single founder or prophet. There is only one god, though its many different manifestations are named and classified in great detail.The most religion in Bali is Hindu, Hindu bring to the Bali by the monk from other island to Bali. Hindu think that God only one, it’s Sang Hyang Widhi, Sanghyang Widhi manifests himself to the Balinese in three main forms, there are Brahma as The Creator, Wisnu as the preserver, and Siwa as the destroyer. When Hindu pray their God, they came to the temple, and they have two ways to pray their God, its “mbakti” and “muspa”, mbakti means they show their devotion to their God, and muspa means they show their respect to their God with Flower, they also use “kwangen” when muspa, A Balinese with hands together at the hips is praying to Sanghyang Kala, Shiva, the Destroyer; with hands at chest level the prayer is to a dead family member; hands held in front of the forehead indicate prayer to Sanghyang Widhi, the Supreme God.
Balinese usually Mebanten” in Bali is refers to one ritual to pray the God, when do this ritual Balinese usually use something name “Canang”, “Canang” is obtain from flower, fruit, and other, Balinese always “Mebanten” when the “Purnama” and “Tilem”, “Purnama” mean the moon show his form obviously but, when “Tilem” the moon not show his form, or Balinese call it Dead Moon.

2.2 Culture
Balinese have an unique culture, Bali have a lot of culture, of them is “Ngaben”, “Mepandes”, “Metajen”, and there are many more, but we just want to explain 3 of them,
2.2.1 Cremation (Ngaben)
A cremation is a superb study of all the most important symbols of Balinese ceremonial life, what anthropologist James Boon calls "a vast historical and ethnographic musing on the inevitability of death." The Balinese believe a person's sojourn on earth is but a short interlude in the long evolutionary process of the soul. Death occurs when the soul escapes from the body, but out of habit it continues to hover around the corpse. The soul cannot be freed as long as there is a body; only when the corporeal container is destroyed by the elements can the soul be liberated from all worldly ties.
A priest's main job is to consecrate the deceased and his effigy with holy water, cleanse the body before cremation, and write letters of introduction (ratnyadana) to open the doors of heaven for the soul. Only high Brahman priests may officiate at cremations of the highborn, and only the poor would hire a lesser ranking 'pemangku’.
there are 4 section when Balinese people do the cremation ceremony, there are :
1. Pre-Burial and Preparation
2. The Procession
3. The Burning
4. Attending The Cremation

2.2.2 Tooth Filing (Mepandes)
Called 'mapandes' in High Balinese, 'matatah' in Common Balinese. The reason for filing is to control evil human characteristics (sad ripu): greed, lust, anger, confusion, stupidity, jealousy, ill-will, and intoxication by either passion or drunkenness. This important life-cycle event usually occurs when a Balinese boy or girl reaches puberty-at a girl's first menstruation, when a boy's voice changes. If not then, it must definitely take place before marriage; sometimes filing is incorporated into the marriage ceremony. After filing, a father's duties to his female children are generally regarded as complete.
Having spent the previous two or three nights praying while confined in bale built for the occasion within the high-caste family's compound, from two to 100 initiates are assembled, dressed in white and yellow to signify holiness. Girls wear precious 'kemben' (breast cloth), the finest the family can afford, with garments as ornate as those of legong dancers. Boys wear a 'songket' from the armpits to the knees, a 'kris' protruding from a yellow sash in the back.
The ceremony begins with the 'pedanda' sprinkling holy water and blessing the group with mantras. Offerings are placed before the gods of sexual love. The initiates lie down on the richly draped bamboo platform wide-eyed and frightened, clutching their pillows as close relatives ring around. Incense is lit, mouthwash placed at the ready, files and whetstones blessed to cleanse them and render the operation painless. Magic symbols (aksara) are inscribed on the teeth.
The "dentist" (sangging) first places a small cylinder of sugarcane in the corners of the mouth to prop the jaws open and prevent gagging. The front two upper canines are filed so they're even with the upper incisors; it's important to effect an even line of short teeth. The actual filing requires about five to 10 minutes. A mirror is provided to allow the patient to observe the progress of the ritual. Filings are spit into a yellow coconut. Tears may roll down their cheeks, but the filees seldom cry out.
When the filing is finished, the astringent betel pepper leaf (base) is rubbed on the ends of the teeth, then the 'pedanda' places various other soothing, healing tinctures on the end of the initiate's tongues. The coconut shell receptacle of filing debris and saliva is then buried behind the ancestral shrine lest it be occupied by evil spirits.

2.2.3 Cock Fighting (Metajen)
Metajen or cockfighting is entertainment that has become a tradition in Bali. Not just a chicken fight, but metajen also invite viewers to bet each other, this is a common event that has happened. Cockfighting winner will receive the money betting after taxes for the cockfighting officials. Chicken is usually given a knife competed in his leg. Chickens that died in the battle will be lost.
Metajen had banned all-out by the local government because it is considered as a gambling, but there are still people who do it. However, local governments are now allowed back metajen for tourism purposes. Metajen have been made into a tourist attraction and has been incorporated into the tourism schedule and all elements of gambling such as betting money was omitted here. So only metajen as with pure entertainment without gambling. But this still did not rule the people of Bali are still using bets on metajen .

2.3 Development
Development in Bali was increased rapidly in tourism sector, then development in Bali, development in IT sector was increase too like other place in Bali. There are many government institute and private institute or personality was promoted Bali, they promotes Bali as an tourism object, Bali has beautiful panorama, and give the tourist an experience when touring in Bali, because Bali has beautiful panorama, and simple life of Balinese people, and Balinese people also friendly with everyone who came to Bali, so the tourist won’t be forget their experience when they tour in Bali, so not strange if Bali is one of the most tourism object in the world, development in tourism sector was increase rapidly in Bali, because there are many investor was falling in love with Bali, so they build the building such as Villa, Hotel, Restaurant, etc, many investor was invest their financial capital, because Bali have good potential in tourism sector, but their development give the negative impact for Bali, such as when the investor build the hotel, villa, or something, its was break the ecosystem in Bali, and the their development was break the rule in Bali, rule in Bali say that, build the building near the temple is not allowed, and not allowed too, for everybody, to build the building in sacred area, the rule in Bali also called “Asta Kosala Kosali”, in this rule explained how to build the building at the right place or right position, because in “Asta Kosala Kosali” is not allowed for everyone who want build something near the temple or sacred area, because that can break Balinese infrastructure,.

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